28 million years – The mystery behind the material of Tutankhamun’s scarab brooch

The fascinating story of the origins of a component in Tutankhamun’s scarab brooch has been furthered this week.  It has been established that some of the material found in that brooch was result of a phenomenal event that occurred 28 million years ago.

image

The consequence of an incomprehensibly ancient comet that had come hurtling through the cosmos towards the Earth created a component which was subsequently used as the centerpiece of King Tut’s brooch. But there has been some debate as to how exactly this event created the glass. Now scientists from Australia and Austria think they have the evidence that provides an end to the argument.

Small but Significant

The findings at the tomb of Tutankhamun were numerous and a small artifact such as a brooch might be over-shadowed by the weightier items. But oftentimes unassuming items have a deeper story than is at first evident. This impressively preserved brooch has such a deep history it could not be imagined and it came to light only through thorough research from multiple disciplines. The brooch contains a striking yellow-brown scarab composed of a yellow silica glass stone procured from the sand of the Sahara and then shaped and polished by some ancient Egyptian artisan. It is this scarab that has perhaps the most interesting history of all.

image

Tutankhamun’s Brooch Holds Evidence of Ancient Comet Striking Earth

Unlocking the Sands of Time

Chemical analysis revealed that the silica glass from this desert was originally formed 28 million years ago, when a comet entered the earth’s atmosphere above Egypt. The sand beneath it was heated to a temperature of about 2,000 degrees Celsius and resulted in the formation of a huge amount of the yellow silica glass, which lies scattered over a 6,000-square kilometer area in the Sahara Desert.

image

In 2017, this silica glass was one of the clues that led Professor Jan Kramers of the University of Johannesburg, South Africa, and colleagues to a remarkable discovery. The other key find was a small black diamond-bearing pebble, which the researchers named ‘Hypatia’, that had been found by an Egyptian geologist several years earlier. This gave the clues needed to detect the cataclysmic event and the resulting composition of the desert.

image

The detection of tiny diamonds within the stone which are the result of extreme pressure usually deep within the earth’s crust showed it to be remarkable. This pebble was found on the surface and so the diamonds formed were the result of a massive shock – an impact of some kind. The study team’s conclusions were that the pebble represented the very first known specimen of a comet nucleus (rather than an ordinary meteorite) and provided the first clear proof of a comet striking Earth millions of years ago.

Latest Research Backs up this Claim

However, there was some debate as to the specifics of how this cataclysmic event created the glass. There were still questions as to whether the event was an actual comet strike or a near miss.

In a press release by Curtin University, Dr Cavosie, from the Space Science and Technology Centre in Curtin’s School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, said, “It has been a topic of ongoing debate as to whether the glass formed during meteorite impact, or during an airburst, which happens when asteroids called Near Earth Objects explode and deposit energy in the Earth’s atmosphere.”

image

The research team believes new evidence found in their research, published in the Geology journal, dismisses the airburst proposal completely. The study states that although both an airburst or a comet impact could melt the desert sand, they found the glass contained a rare mineral called reidite, and this they say could only be shocked into existence by the power of an impact, which is millions of times stronger than an airburst. Dr Cavosie states:

Both meteorite impacts and airbursts can cause melting, however, only meteorite impacts create shock waves that form high-pressure minerals, so finding evidence of former reidite confirms it was created as the result of a meteorite impact.

Live Science reports the study as stating, “airbursts create shock waves up in the air that can be thousands of pascals (a unit of pressure), asteroid impacts cause shock waves of billions of pascals on the ground.”

image

Comet Hale-Bopp taken in the vicinity of Pazin in Istria/Croatia (CC BY SA 2.0)

Comet material had never been found on Earth before except as microscopic sized dust particles in the upper atmosphere and in Antarctic ice. Space agencies have spent billions to secure the smallest amounts of pristine comet matter and bring it back to Earth, but Kramers and her team have a new approach for studying this material without having to go to space to get it.

But what is the importance of this work?

image

“Comets contain the very secrets to unlocking the formation of our solar system and this discovery gives us an unprecedented opportunity to study comet material first hand,” said Professor David Block of Wits University, a key researcher on the Kramer  team.

And a comforting take away from Dr Cavosie’s group is this:

Previous models suggested that Libyan desert glass represented a large, 100-Mt class airburst, but our results show this is not the case. Meteorite impacts are catastrophic events, but they are not common. Airbursts happen more frequently, but we now know not to expect a Libyan desert glass-forming event in the near future, which is cause for some comfort.

Related Posts

La tumba de Tutankamón cobra vida a través de fotografías históricas en color en 1922

A principios del siglo XX, Howard Carter, un egiptólogo británico, excavó durante muchos años en el Valle de los Reyes, un cementerio real ubicado en la orilla occidental de la antigua ciudad de Tebas, Egipto. Cuando Carter llegó a Egipto en 1891,…

Dentro de las principales zonas mineras de oro del mundo

El oro ha fascinado a la gente durante mucho tiempo porque representa riqueza, poder y estatus. Las principales minas de oro del mundo son el epicentro tanto de la diversidad geológica de la tierra como de la búsqueda de este metal precioso tan buscado. En este artículo,…

Maravilloso gran descubrimiento: cráneo de dinosaurio Triceratops perdido en Noruega

Por primera vez se exhibe en Noruega un cráneo de dinosaurio original completo gracias a una generosa donación privada. Hace 67 millones de años, el Triceratops “Roar” vagaba por las llanuras aluviales de América del Norte junto con otros dinosaurios conocidos de…

Fósiles de dinosaurios prístinos revelados en rocas prehistóricas

En una gran revelación que ha resonado en todo el ámbito de la paleontología, se ha descubierto un esqueleto fósil de dinosaurio casi completo, inactivo durante más de 49 millones de años debajo de capas de roca antigua. Este sorprendente hallazgo ofrece…

El descubrimiento de una momia de elefante gigante de 6 millones de años ilumina la antigua cultura funeraria

En un giro inesperado y esperado de los acontecimientos, los paleontólogos han anunciado un descubrimiento notable en Florida: los antiguos restos de un elefante encajonado deliberadamente por humanos, que datan de hace aproximadamente 6 millones de años. El hallazgo es un desafío…

Desenterrando un mausoleo de 4.400 años de antigüedad sin rastro de violación

Los arqueólogos egipcios descubrieron la tumba de un sacerdote que data de hace más de 4.400 años en el complejo piramidal de Saqqara, al sur de la capital, El Cairo. El ministro de Antigüedades, Khaled al-Enany, dijo a una audiencia de invitados, entre ellos periodistas de la AFP: “Es…

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *